Osservazioni su Amoris Laetitia e sui dubia espressi dai 4 cardinali

Leggendo l’ottavo capitolo dell’esortazione post-sinodale Amoris Laetitia (AL), a proposito dei casi dei divorziati che vivono una nuova unione il lettore s’imbatte nella seguente affermazione:

“La Chiesa riconosce situazioni in cui «l’uomo e la donna, per seri motivi – quali, ad esempio, leducazione dei figli – non possono soddisfare lobbligo della separazione»” (AL 298).

Al termine della frase è posta una nota, la numero 329. A cosa servano le annotazioni

al termine di un documento lo spiega il dizionario Treccani della lingua italiana: “fare un’osservazione, dare una notizia, chiarire o illustrare o commentare un passo o una parola”. Con questo fine esplicativo delle note bene in testa, il lettore allora va alla nota 329 dove per prima cosa trova citato il n. 84 dell’esortazione apostolica Familiaris consortio di San Giovanni Paolo II del 1982. In quel documento il Papa polacco definisce la nuova unione dopo un divorzio “un male” (una piaga, nella traduzione italiana). Di seguito Giovanni Paolo II vietava tassativamente la possibilità di ammettere all’Eucaristia i divorziati risposati “dal momento che il loro stato e la loro condizione di vita contraddicono oggettivamente a quell’unione di amore tra Cristo e la Chiesa, significata e attuata dall’Eucaristia”.

Si tratta, mi pare, di un passaggio fondamentale; Cristo è fedele, Cristo non tradisce la Chiesa, la Sua Sposa, se il Matrimonio cristiano è “segno efficace, sacramento dell’Alleanza di Cristo e della Chiesa” (CCC 1617), allora è evidente che l’uomo e la donna non possono tradirsi l’un l’altra se non accettando di violare quel segno efficace attuato dal matrimonio e dunque compiere un male. Per questo motivo, una volta commesso il peccato di adulterio, il Papa Santo, per potere adire al sacramento della penitenza [dove per l’assoluzione del peccato è richiesto il pentimento sincero, il fermo proposito a non commetterlo nuovamente e persino a rifuggire le occasioni che possono favorire una nuova caduta] e ricevere poi l’Eucaristia, nel medesimo paragrafo citato dalla nota 329 di AL prescriveva ai coniugi separati o divorziati in una nuova unione di assumere l’impegno a “vivere in piena continenza, cioè di astenersi dagli atti propri dei coniugi” essendo che nessuno dei due è coniuge dell’altro.

Proseguendo la lettura della nota 329 di Amoris laetitia, il lettore trova poi scritta la seguente frase: “In queste situazioni, molti, conoscendo e accettando la possibilità di convivere come fratello e sorellache la Chiesa offre loro, rilevano che, se mancano alcune espressioni di intimità, «non è raro che la fedeltà sia messa in pericolo e possa venir compromesso il bene dei figli»“.

Qui è difficile non provare un senso di confusione, se non addirittura di smarrimento: l’argomento addotto contiene in sé un’evidente antinomia laddove si evoca un’esignza di fedeltà posta però all’interno di una relazione caratterizzata dall’infedeltà sin dall’inizio. Unirsi al “nuovo coniuge”, cioè un atto di adulterio, sarebbe riconosciuto sì come un male, ma costituirebbe una sorta di male necessario per il bene dei figli. Si potrebbe celiare interrogandosi sulla verosimiglianza dell’esistenza di chi si accinge a compiere un coito per dovere e quasi con intima mestizia, ma la natura della materia è oltremodo seria e dunque è necessario individuare quello che è il punto centrale dove s’inserisce l’errore della proposizione. Avere un atto sessuale con la “nuova moglie” o il “nuovo marito” sposati civilmente dopo il divorzio confligge con un cardine della dottrina morale cattolica: “non è lecito compiere un male perché ne derivi un bene” (CCC 1756).

Vi sono infatti atti che semper et pro semper (sempre e per sempre) sono un male, che sono intrinsece mala (intrinsecamente mali) e tra questi, insegna lo stesso articolo del catechismo, è annoverato in modo specifico l’adulterio. Chi compie un atto di questo tipo compie un’azione malvagia a prescindere dalle circostanze e dalle intenzioni soggettive che non possono mai rendere l’azione un bene. È dottrina cattolica che “l’atto moralmente buono suppone, ad un tempo, la bontà dell’oggetto, del fine e delle circostanze” (CCC 1755). Affermare che circostanze particolari o intenzioni benevole possano giustificare determinati comportamenti oggettivamente malvagi significa rinnegare il cuore dell’insegnamento dell’enciclica Veritatis splendor. Nella nota di AL l’obiezione all’obbligo di castità è invero riportata soltanto come possibile argomentazione senza che l’autore la faccia propria in modo esplicito, tuttavia non si può soprassedere sul fatto che è l’autore stesso che allega all’affermazione il riferimento a un documento sicuramente magisteriale, il n. 51 della costituzione conciliare Gaudium et spes, lasciando intendere che colui che afferma che per il bene della prole si possono avere “espressioni di intimità” con una persona diversa da quella con cui ci si è uniti in matrimonio sacramentalmente [ed allo stato attuale il «favor indissolubilitatis» prescritto da San Giovanni Paolo II non risulta essere stato abolito], possa contare sul sostegno dell’insegnamento della Chiesa.

Vi è però il piccolo particolare che i padri conciliari in quel documento parlavano degli atti di intimità all’interno del matrimonio canonicamente valido. Ora, a dire il vero, nonostante che il testo affermi che si tratti di una tesi diffusa (“molti rilevano che”) non conosco alcuna fonte che prima di AL abbia sostenuto la legittimità di atti sessuali in una nuova unione dopo il divorzio assimilandoli agli atti coniugali. Anche se questa prospettiva non è esplicitamente accolta in AL, risulta incomprensibile come una tesi con tale evidenza di fallacia teologica possa essere stata presa non solo in considerazione, ma addirittura come sia possibile che in nessun punto di AL sia rinvenibile un esplicito e chiaro rifiuto di una teoria erronea che si vorrebbe abbia ampia diffusione. Risulta quindi comprensibile e lodevole che a fronte di questo “vuoto” nel testo di AL interpretabile e di fatto interpretato come un cambio di dottrina, con linguaggio appropriato sia stato posto da alcuni cardinali una richiesta di chiarificazione che, riguardo a ciò che abbiamo esposto, si identifica nel secondo e quarto dubbio. Il papa, in quanto pastore universale della Chiesa a cui è stato comandato di confermare i fratelli nella fede ha il dovere di fornire la risposta, perché essere confermato da Pietro nella fede è necessario alla salvezza dell’anima ed è diritto non solo dei quattro cardinali, ma di ogni battezzato.

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